Physical therapists know this. Pilates teachers know this. Athletes and dancers know this; how come yoga teachers are behind?
Recently one of the commentators on my blog, Michele, asked me: “Why don’t I hear yoga teachers talk more about “zipping up” (progressive abdominal contraction) in yoga classes?” I don’t know why. I do know that it is absolutely essential. Many yoga poses, if done without it, can be very risky to students’ backs and sacrums and just make the pose more unstable. What is this elusive “zip up”? Let’s explore.
Today I observed my 2 year old son discover zip up. He was playing with his belly button and discovered that on the inhale it is easy to stick the belly out and on the exhale it is fun to pull it in. That entertained him for a while. This pattern represents our natural breathing pattern – when we breathe in, the diaphragm flattens and pushes down on the internal organs, causing the belly to stick out, since the organs have no other place to go. With every exhalation the belly relaxes, since the diaphragm goes back up. In yoga practice we piggyback on this natural pattern and intentionally contract the abdomen on the exhalation, drawing it in. IT DOES NOT HAPPEN NATURALLY, WE DO IT ON PURPOSE. Why?
Do an experiment. Stand with your hands on your hips as if you were holding a bucket of water. As you inhale, tip the pelvis forward, as if spilling the water forward. What are your back muscles doing? Contracting. What are your abdominal muscles doing? Stretching. As you exhale, tip your pelvis the other way, as if spilling the water back. What are your back muscles doing? Stretching. What are your abdominal muscles doing? Contracting. This experiment is meant to demonstrate the relationship between your lower back and your abdominal muscles. They have an agonist-antagonist relationship: when one is contracting, another one as passively stretching. Why is that important? Well, most of us have either weak or chronically contracted lower back muscles because of sedentary lifestyle, overuse, posture issues, patterns of movement – many different reasons. And many people, especially in the yoga community, have excessive lumbar lordosis (exaggerated curvature of the lower back). Do those issues go away when you step on the mat to do your yoga practice? Nope, you bring them with you. So next time you go into Virabhadrasana 1, your pelvis automatically tilts forward, because it’s easier. As a result, your lower back tightens even more, so instead of fixing the problem you exaggerate it.
Take a look at these two images. What is the main difference?
In Image 1 the lumbar curve is exaggerated, because the shoulders are aligned over the hips, the stance is too wide and abdomen is not contracted. Even though it looks like a nice back bend, the lower back is compromised and vulnerable to potential injury. In the yoga world this is called “Anga banga”(real Sanskrit word) – it’s when you are trying to do something good for yourself but end up hurting it. What’s the solution? Zip up! In Image 2 the shoulders are positioned slightly in front of the hips, lower back curve remains neutral and abdomen is contracted. The result – supported lower back, stronger core, better alignment, deeper awareness. Yes, the backbend might not be as deep, but we know better then compromise safety for the sake of contortion, right?
My students catch up on the idea of zipping up quickly. Any time I ask them: What can we do to make this pose (any pose) safer/more stable/stronger, they respond in unison: “Zip up!” Doing zip up in back bends protects your lower back, doing it in twists ensures that you twist from the center, instead of using arm leverage, doing it in forward bends takes you deeper into the pose in a safer way, etc. It’s one of those things that you really shouldn’t go without.
By the way, having developed “six pack” abs have nothing to do with having strong core. Abdominal crunches exercise Rectus abdominis muscles, whose job is to flex the trunk. They do not support your lower back. Transverse abdominis muscles that lie underneath serve that purpose, almost like an internal corset that holds things together. By progressively pulling the abdomen in toward the spine you activate those muscles. The term “zip up” is not really a term but an image that helps you visualize the process. Imagine putting on a tight pair of jeans. When you attempt to zip them up, you gradually pull your stomach in from the bottom toward the top to make it happen. This image usually works better for women, then for men 🙂 When we say “zip up”, we mean “progressive abdominal contraction from the pubic bone toward the navel”. “Zip up” is just faster and more visual.
Theoretically, we want to engage the zip up EVERY TIME WE EXHALE, for the duration of the yoga practice. This is the simplest way to develop core strength and support the lower back. It has other unexpected benefits. It trains your body to respond quickly if your balance is compromised. Consider my personal story: I was taking my rambunctious lab for a walk one time and turned to lock the door. He saw a squirrel and pulled so strongly that I went flying off the stairs. The thought that flashed through my head was “I am about to do a face plant on the cement walkway.” But my body responded differently. After years of practice, my core muscles contracted automatically, regrouping my entire body and I landed on my feet – no conscious decision on my part! This happens when you teach your body to behave a certain way through mindful training on the mat and the results show up off the mat. That’s why we do yoga anyway – not for it’s own sake, but to live happier, healthier and more fulfilled lives (with fewer injuries!)
Few words about bandhas. I often hear yoga teachers use the term “uddiyana bandha” in place of “progressive abdominal contraction”. It’s not the same thing. In general, teachings on bandhas vary from one yoga tradition to another. Sri Krishnamacharya was clear in his teachings: bandhas are done in a seated position for the purpose of affecting your body’s subtle energy, NOT structural support.
ZIP UP TECHNIQUE.
When moving in-out of the pose: On the Exhalation progressively contract your abdomen from the pubic bone toward the navel; on the Inhale gradually release the contraction form the navel to the pubic bone.
When holding the pose: On the Exhalation progressively contract your abdomen from the pubic bone toward the navel and release it only partially on the Inhalation to maintain support. On the next Exhalation reengage the abdomen and on the Inhale again release partially. Continue for as long as you hold the pose. Partial release of the contraction on the inhalation allows you to breathe more fully, but remaining contraction of the lowest part of the abdomen maintains support for the lower back.
Do you teach progressive abdominal contraction to your students? Do you have an interesting way of presenting it?